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Johannes Janssonius table globes
Amsterdam, 1623 & 1648

[GLOBES]. HONDIUS, Jodocus the younger. [Terrestial globe. Sculpebat magnoque studio componebat Abrahamus Goos Amstelodamensis].
Amsterdam, Johannes Janssonius, 1623.
With: (2) HONDIUS, Jodocus the younger and Adriaan METIUS. Sphaera nova, summo studio summaq[ue] diligentia atq[ue] industria … Adriani Metii …
Amsterdam, Johannes Janssonius, 1648.

DIAMETER: 17 in . (44 cm.)
HEIGHT: 26 in. (65 cm.)
WIDTH: 24 in. (60 cm.)

A pair of globes (44 cm diameter), terrestrial and celestial, each with 12 engraved gores (the terrestrial globe also with 2 engraved polar caps) over a plaster-covered core. Each globe in a new oak stand in 17th-century style with a facsimile paper horizon ring.

The terrestrial globe includes 3 decorative cartouches (1 double), thumb lines, 12 compass roses, dozens of ships, sea monsters and classical gods in the sea, and some animals on the land.
Mountains and rivers are named. California is shown as a peninsula and the Chinese wall is depicted with red coloured watch towers.
The discoveries by Hudson are mentioned. Also to be seen is a text written in what is now named Hudson Bay.:- ”The Bay where Hudson did winter”.

Dedication, in a simple. Oval cartouche, crowned with a coat of arms. But which has not been filled in; placed in the southern continent, 160 o – 200 o L, 20 o – 65 o S.

« Nobilisimis Amplissimo consultissimis Prudentissimisq viris D. Dominus Societatis Indiarium occidentalium curatoribus//…// Colesten//…// globos// Jansinius dicta dedicata Anno 1623 »

To the most noble, splendid, skilful and prudent lords, the lords curators of the West Indian Company Johannes Janssonius, their most humble servant, gladly and rightly gives, consecrates and dedicates these his celestial and terrestrial globes. In the year 1623.

The dedication to the West Indian Company is very rare and not many copies are known.

Advice to the reader, in a cartouche crowned with a small field in which we find the words:
Lec / tori / meo, placed in North America, 230 o – 270 o L, 50 o – 65 o N.

Lectori meo: « In hoc globe multa priseis incognita reperium nec veterum modo errores, Sed novae etiam terrae demonstrantur. Multi globos ediderunt at vere liceat dicere nullum hactenus prodijsse qui tam concine omnia contineret Habes in yota Americ mutata, in Oceano Tartarici et circa illum, ut et alibi, Nova quam plurimo [ ] utere ergo, lectot, hoc globo novissimo et exactisimo. Pindano enim teste : Dies sequentes testes sunt sapientisimi vale ac nostros labores boni consuli »

To my reader. Much is to be found on this globe that was unknown to the ancients. And not only have the errors of the ancients been exposed, but new lands (are also given). Many have published globes: but one may truly say that up until now none has been published that contains everything so elegantly. You will find changes here in all of America and in and around the Tarter Ocean, as well as a maximum of new things in other places. Therefore, reader, make use of this newest and most exact globe. Because, according to Pindaris, the days which will come are the best witness. Farewell and be benevolent towards our labours.

The Terrestrial globe is state I.
Copies known:
a. Germany, Berlin, Deutsche Staatsbibliothek.

The celestial globe includes 2 decorative cartouches (the title cartouche below a tiny portrait
of Tycho Brahe) and about 45 constellations represented pictorially, mostly named. It distinguishes stars by 6 different magnitudes. Each globe coloured by a contemporary hand, with a brass meridian ring.
Legends state II.
Title, in an oval cartouche with cords hanging from it, crowned with a portrait and the inscription

"Sphaera nova summo studio summaque diligentia atque industria Clarissimi viri D. Adriani Metii Watheseos apud Frunequeranos Professoris Ordinarii ad abacos Nobilissimi viri Thiconis Brahe configurata observationibus quamplurimis tum circa polum arcticum a discipulo suo Houtmanno adhibitis aucta et in annum 1630 reducta. Edente Joanne Jansonio 1648."

A new globe adjusted with the greatest industry, zeal and diligence by the most renowned Adrian Metius, Ordinary Professor of Mathematics in Franeker, to the tables of the most noble Tycho Brahe, enlarged by a maximum of observations, both those around the Artic pole being made by himself, and those around the Antarctic by his disciple Frederik de Houtman, all adapted to the year 1630.
published by Johannes Janssonius in 1648.

The Celestial globe is state II.
Copies known:
a. France, Fècamp Bibliotheque Municipale.
b. Germany, Luneberg, Museum fur das Furstentum
c. Italy, Milano, Private collection, Marquis Borromeo.

A pair of terrestrial and celestial globes prepared by Jodocus Hondius the younger (1597-1651), engraved by Abraham Goos and first published by Hondius and his brother-in-law Johannes Janssonius in 1623, the terrestrial globe here in its first state (1623) and the celestial globe in its second (1648).
In this period Amsterdam was the world's leading centre of globe manufacture and in Amsterdam Hondius (succeeding his father in 1612) and Willem Jansz. Blaeu stood head and shoulders above the rest. "Globe production in the period after 1597 was characterized by an interaction between Hondius and Blaeu. Whenever one came up with something new, the other followed with something better to try to outdo his competitor" (V.d. Krogt, p. 187). Van der Krogt notes that Hondius's 1623 celestial globe appears to take Blaeu's 68 cm globe (engraved in 1617) as its model. The terrestrial globe includes a note to the reader, explaining that the globes contain "changes in all of America and in and around the Sea of Tartary [= Arctic Sea], as well as a multitude of new things in other places". It shows the discoveries of Henry Hudson in the Arctic and what is now the northern United States and Canada (1607-1611) and of Schouten & Le Maire in the South Seas (1615-1617) and is dedicated to the Dutch West India Company (WIC).
Van der Krogt notes 3 variants of the first state of the terrestrial globe, each known from a single unique example, and the present is a fourth variant, also unique. He distinguishes Janssonius and Hondius issues with a j or h. In the earliest variant (Van der Krogt 1*) two of the three cartouches remain blank, so it lacks Janssonius's dedication to the West India Company (dated 1623) and his imprint (which credits Abraham Goos for the engraving). This seems likely to be a proof state of the plates, made in or just before 1623, and Van der Krogt calls it a "temporary publication". These two inscriptions have been added in Van der Krogt's next variant (1j), including the date 1623. His third variant (1h) was probably initially identical to 1j but has had slips pasted over these two inscriptions, dedicating the globe to King Louis XIII of France rather than the West India Company and naming Hondius himself as publisher rather than Janssonius.
The present unrecorded variant falls between Van der Krogt's 1* and 1j, having Janssonius's 1623 dedication to the Dutch West India Company, but with the imprint cartouche blank. The present globe is therefore only the second example known with the 1623 dedication to the West India Company and the eighth in any state. The celestial globe includes the supernova famously noted by Tycho in 1572 as a "stella nova", which disappeared the following year. Van der Krogt notes 9 examples of this globe in all its states, but only 2 or 3 in the present second state, dated 1648. No example of either globe in any state is recorded in any collection in the Netherlands or outside continental Europe.

Information: Peter van der Krogt. Old Globes in the Netherlands. HES Utrecht 1984.

Conservation report.
There were numerous small gaps in the engraved image of the terrestrial globe and occasional tears, most of the gaps either in the open ocean or along the edges of the gores. These have been expertly and unobtrusively repaired and retouched with ink and watercolour. The celestial globe has fewer gaps but a few constellations had been retouched in an earlier restoration. Some damage to the underlying plaster-covered cores has been restored, especially at the poles of the terrestrial globe, and the globes carefully cleaned and varnished with a UV-protective varnish. The pointers and brass hour rings are lacking and the stands are new, with reproductions of the original horizon rings. The stands are based on those of the set at the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, Germany.

Provenance; Duke of Luynes, Chateau de Dampierre, France
The globes come from the collection of the Dukes of Luynes in their historical residence Chateau de Dampierre, southwest of Paris. Charles d'Albert was created first Duke of Luynes in 1619 and married into the family of the Dukes of Chevreuse. The titles were united in 1663, when the Dampierre estate came to the Dukes of Luynes from the Chevreuse side. The present Chateau was rebuilt in or soon after 1670.

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